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Название: Fighting the Russians in Winter: Three Case Studies
Автор: Dr. Allen F. Chew
Издательство: Combat Studies Institute
Leavenworth Papers No. 5.
Although the Russian war plans of both Napoleon and Hitler miscarried seriously in terms of casualties and materiel even prior to the onset of winter, "General Winter" was indeed a major contributor to the magnitude of their subsequent problems and casualties. No consideration of warfare in European Russia can ignore the harshness of that region's climate, and the successful war planner must adapt to those conditions or risk emulating their powerful predecessors. Fighting the Russians in Winter: Three Case Studies cites three examples drawn from history to illustrate the nature of a winter war in Russia: The undeclared Allied-Soviet War in Northern Russia in 1918-1919; The destruction of the Soviet 44th Motorized Rifle Division in the Winter War against Finland; Aspects of Nazi-Soviet Warfare in 1941-1942. Two of these three campaigns clearly demonstrated the superiority of the defense over the offense, while the Winter War, although the 44th Division fought defensively, it was as part of the overall Soviet strategic offensive. Given the lessons learned by both sides in the 1918-1919 campaign - lessons vitiated in that conflict due to lack of adequate supplies and troops - it is remarkable that the same issues, such as lack of adequate clothing and lubricants, reoccurred in 1941-1942. All three case studies in "Fighting the Russians in Winter" illustrate the need for thorough preparations, specialized training, and appropriate equipment for any winter operations in such an environment. They also present dramatic proof of the cost of ignoring those lessons.